Title Project on Policy Analysis of Motorized Transportation/Air Pollution Issues in New Delhi, India
 Collaborators Madhav Badami (UBC), Tim McDaniels (UBC)
 Keywords policy analysis, motor vehicles, air pollution, India, Dehli, operation behaviors, multi-objective analysis

This project has two main components: a) development of a policy-analytic framework for systematic thinking and policy analysis concerned with motor vehicular air pollutant emissions in the Indian context; and b) policy-focused research related to motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in Delhi, including a multiple-objective evaluation of some policy alternatives. This focus recognizes that these vehicles contribute significantly to the air pollution problem in Delhi (and other Indian cities), while at the same time providing mobility benefits to many .

During field-work in 1997, Badami collected data, and conducted in-depth interviews with decision makers, academics and researchers, vehicle and fuel industry representatives. The purpose of the interviews was to discuss policy objectives, technical and institutional factors contributing to the problem, and policy implementation. Interviews conducted with motorized two-wheeled vehicle users discussed their modal choice, vehicle purchasing, operation and maintenance behaviors and motivations, and their judgments as to how they would be affected by, and would respond to, various policy alternatives.

This project will form the basis for five papers.

(i) The first presents an up-to-date and comprehensive picture of the motor vehicular air pollution problem in Delhi, places it in the context of the air pollution and other urban transportation and urbanization impacts in India, discusses current policies and prospects, and justifies the research agenda.

(ii) The second presents the policy-analytic framework and the multiple policy objectives developed with respect to motorized two-wheeled vehicle air pollutant policy choices in Delhi, based on the field interviews.

(iii) The third discusses the technical and institutional factors contributing to the problem, the decision-making framework, and the roles of, and interaction between, government departments, vehicle and fuel manufacturers, environmental NGOs, and the courts (among others), with regard to policy-making; it also discusses the implications of uncertainties in motor vehicular emissions inventories for priority-setting, and the barriers and
constraints from the point of view of governments and industry.

(iv) The fourth discusses the results of in-depth discussions with 52 motorized two-wheeled vehicle users; the results are linked with the earlier analysis of technical and institutional factors, user perspectives are juxtaposed with decision maker and vehicle industry perspectives, and implications are explored for effective emissions prevention and control policy-making.

(v) The fifth presents an evaluation of several policy alternative scenarios, by means of an alternatives-by-objectives matrix, over a 10-year time-frame, in terms of the multiple objectives generated. Uncertainties in various parameters are accounted for, user views as to various policies are incorporated in the evaluation, and the effects of changing assumptions are explored. Finally, the implications of the results for emissions prevention and control in the Indian context are discussed, and suggestions made for improved policy-making.