List of Global Efforts around the world.
Carnegie Mellon Outreach
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA, USA
This brochure was prepared by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University to explain the issue of global warming and climate change. The key points are covered in the three parts that follow:
Part 1: Climate
Burning coal, oil and natural gas releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere. On average, this may warm the earth and change the climate in other ways. For example, it might change the severity and duration of storms or droughts. Other human activities, such as cutting down forests, and growing rice, and raising cattle, may have the same effect, but are less important.
Part 2: Impacts
If the climate changes heating, cooling, water use, and sea level will be affected. In wealthy countries, the average cost would probably be small, although some people and regions might have high costs and others might receive large benefits. In some poor countries, the cost could be very high. A large or fast change in climate will have a big effect on plants and animals in the natural environment. Very rapid climate change is unlikely, but could be disastrous, even for wealthy countries.
Part 3: Policy
We could reduce the rate at which we add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere by burning less coal, oil and natural gas. If climate changes, we could adapt by changing agriculture and other human activities. Many plants and animals in the natural environment might be unable to adapt. If warming is large and costly, some people might want to make changes to the atmosphere or oceans in order to cool the earth. This is very controversial.
Other Global Change Efforts Around the World
University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, England
This ten-year research programme was established in 1991 to bring social science and economics expertise to bear on global environmental research. The Programme addresses:
-the social and economic causes of environmental change
-the impacts of environmental change
-the policies and strategies which governments, businesses and individuals can adopt in order to mitigate or adapt to environmental stresses
-how environmental knowledge relates to these actions
European Commission, Brussels
The overall objective of ENRICH is to pursue a major coherent European contribution to international actions on global change research. While considering the needs of EC programmes and activities, and taking into account the existing activities of the EC, and the EU and EFTA Member States, ENRICH aims to support the knowledge base for the development of EU policy objectives. It intends to do so by acting as a clearinghouse for the exchange of information and by promoting cooperation in research and capacity building. In addition to promoting collaboration in Western Europe (EU and EFTA), ENRICH also aims to encourage the endogenous research capabilities in developing countries mainly, but not exclusively in Africa and the Mediterranean Basin and to promote support for relevant research initiatives in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS).
International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The overall goals of IGAC are:
-to develop a fundamental understanding of the processes that determine atmospheric composition,
-to understand the interactions between atmospheric chemical composition and physical, biospheric and climatic processes, and
-to predict the impact of natural and anthropogenic forcings on the chemical composition of the atmosphere.
The International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) was initiated in 1990 as the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme (HDP) by the International Social Science Council (ISSC). It is the social science parallel to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Since February 1996, IHDP is also co-sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).
The goal of IIASA is to conduct international and interdisciplinary scientific studies to provide timely and relevant information and options, addressing critical issues of global environmental, economic, and social change, for the benefit of the public, the scientific community, and national and international institutions.
Over the coming decades, the global effects of land use and cover change(LUCC) may be as significant, or more so, than those associated with potential climate change. Unlike climate change per se, land use and cover change are known and undisputed aspects of global environmental change. These changes and their impacts are with us now, ranging from potential climate warming to land degradation and biodiversity loss and from food production to spread of infectious diseases. LUCC's significance notwithstanding, our understanding of the scale and pace of this change, its human and biophysical origins, and its linkages to other global change is inadequate. It is a testament to this paucity of knowledge that an accurate global map of agriculture does not exist, that we do not have good measures of change in such land covers as forests and grasslands, and that we cannot model and project well land-use and -cover changes in an integrative way.
The importance of an interdisciplinary perspective on LUCC was recognised early in the development of the LUCC Core Project, and is manifested in its joint sponsorship by the IGBP and the IHDP. From inception the planning and implementation of the project, has actively engaged both the physical and social science communities, and this will continue to be an important modus operandi in the future.
The transformation of the global climate system, set going by the very nature of our technical civilization, represents one of the greatest challenges so far in the history of mankind. The main cause of this development is the emission of greenhouse gases (such as CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) by industry, traffic and households, which has modified the radiation balance of the Earths atmosphere and will bring about a planetary warming of two to three degrees Celsius in the 21st Century. And this is happening, moreover, during one of the Earths warm periods, a time at which our environment is anyway at the peak of a natural fever. The special challenge noted initially relates to the complexity of the expected repercussions, the gigantic spatiotemporal range of the perturbation, the irreversibility of probable damage to innumerable ecological an socioeconomic systems and to the completely novel aspects of international and intergenerational justice that are involved: who pays the price, who is liable, who profits, who makes provision and who provides the aftercare?
Public opinion and politicians began about two decades ago to become interested in these questions, which initially were addressed only gradually at individual scientific conferences. But nowhere did the research capacity exist which could provide well-founded answers to specific problems, not to speak of an integrated assessment of the problem as a whole. In this situation some farsighted representatives of ministries, universities and research communities made use of the short-term window of opportunity arising from the German re-unification to set in motion the foundation of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). PIK was to run in a manner appropriate to its subject, in other words with a radically holistic approach. On the one hand scientists from all relevant disciplines (i.e. meteorology, ecology, economic sciences, systems analysis, etc.) should work together closely and without bias (horizontal integration), on the other hand all aspects of the relevant problem (from its formulation to proposals for its solution for decision-makers) should equally be considered (vertical integration). The possibilities to contain human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change at a tolerable level, together with suitable measures to adapt to the unavoidable warming of the planet (with its particularly grave consequences for the poorest developing countries), should be at the core of the institutes research.
The Tyndall Centre is a national UK centre for trans-disciplinary research on climate change. It is dedicated to advancing the science of integration, to seeking, evaluating and facilitating sustainable solutions to climate change and to motivate society through promoting informed and effective dialogue.
The Centre was constituted in October 2000 and launched officially on 9 November 2000. It is the result of a unique collaboration between nine UK research institutions and three of the UK Research Councils - NERC, EPSRC and ESRC. It draws additional support from the UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry. The Centre has its Headquarters in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, but it also has regional offices at UMIST in Manchester and at the University of Southampton.
Tyndall Centre activities have three key elements:
integrated, trans-disciplinary research on climate change;
wide engagement with national and international stakeholders
education and opinion-shaping
The Tyndall Centre aims to deliver tangible outputs and to develop partnerships between researchers on the one hand, and governments, businesses, civil society and households on the other. It is active in both the UK and in emerging parallel initiatives around the world, such as the European Climate Forum.
Its research addresses both climate change mitigation and adaptation policy objectives with a particular emphasis on integrated assessment. Most importantly, its research applies across a range of scales in space and time - from the domestic to the global, and from the present through the coming centuries.
The purpose of the Tyndall Centre is to research, assess and communicate from a distinct trans-disciplinary perspective the options to mitigate, and the necessities to adapt to, climate change, and to integrate these into the global, national and local contexts of sustainable development.
The UK Research Councils office was established in 1990 in recognition of the growing national and international interest in GER issues and the need to coordinate UK responses to research opportunities and challenges.
The mission of the GER Office is to:
- Provide a visible national focal point for UK GER interests.
- Collect and disseminate information on UK and international science and policy developments, initiatives and contacts; "The Globe", National Directory of GER , International Directory of GER , UK GER Office database and via our Web site.
- Provide the Secretariat for the UK Inter-Agency Committee on Global Environmental Change. IACGEC membership is at the Heads of agencies level and spans the Department of the Environment (representing all central government departments), the Meteorological Office, the British National Space Centre and the Research Councils. All agencies provide funding to support the IACGEC which is charged with maintaining under review the entire UK GEC research interest.
- Promote both an interdisciplinary approach to GER and the role of the UK Research Councils in the GER debate; by liaison with national and international governmental and non-governmental organisations, and the organisation of thematic meetings, seminars and workshops.
CSIRO serveS the Australian community through outcomes which provide:
-benefit to Australia's industry and economy
-environmental benefit to Australia
-social benefit to Australians
-support to Australian national and international objectives
through excellence in science and technology and in the provision of advice and services.
University of Alberta, Canada
The mission of the CGCP is to promote informed action through sound advice on global change.
This mission will require:
-the best available scientific evidence,
-being explicit about relevant uncertainties,
-understanding the risks,
-presenting options in unambiguous terms,
-being timely with advice, and
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
The multidisciplinary McGill Centre for Climate and Global Change Research (C2GCR) was created in March 1990 as a successor to the Climate Research Group, founded in 1987 by the McGill Department of Meteorology (now Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences). Its current membership is composed of 16 faculty members from five departments: Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Geography, Natural Resource Sciences, Economics and, from the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) department of Earth Sciences. Approximately 60 graduate and postdoctoral students working in climate or global change research are being supervised by the Centre faculty members.
The Climate Action Network (CAN) is a network of NGOs who share a common concern for problems of climate change and wish to cooperate in the development and implementation of both short term and long term strategies to combat it. The Climate Action Network has eight regional focal points which co-ordinate these efforts in Africa, South Asia, South East Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, Europe, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Canadian Global Change Program of the Royal Society of Canada
Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Canadian Global Change Program of the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked by Canadians about global change issues.
The Teacher's Guide is designed to:
-help teachers make effective use of Global Change and Canadians in developing programs with students concerning global change;
-provide a basic set of teaching/learning activities related to the major topics of the book;
-suggest curricular connections between topics in global change and the school program;
and list some additional resources.
University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Mannitoba, Canada
The Global Change Game (GCG) is an environmental education / international development education project that was invented in late 1991 by students at the University of Manitoba, in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Each participant becomes one hundred million people determining the future of their region of the world through social, economic and environmental decision-making and interactions with other regions. While minutes tick by for the players, years pass in th e Game as it travels several decades into the future. Participants are encouraged to show imagination in their quest for global solutions as they learn about the long-term results of their decisions.
funded by: NASA, IITA, HPCC
The goal of the Earth System Science Community is to develop curriculum and support services on the World Wide Web (WWW) that will enable any teacher, student,or school connected to the Internet to begin investigating the Earth system quickly, easily, and inexpensively.
Conventional methods and tools by which science has been taught in the classroom, such as lecture and textbook, and the methods and tools by which science is really practiced are largely incongruent. Discontinuity between how students are supposed to learn in the classroom and how they are expected to work and communicate in their professional communities. Discontinuity encapsulates the systemic problems in education. Earth System Science is a model for change.
United States Government
The National Science Foundation (NSF) participates in and contributes to the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program. This integrative research effort was established by the 1990 Global Change Research Act and is aimed at understanding and responding to global change, including the cumulative effects of human activities and natural processes on the environment, (and) to promote discussion toward international protocols in global change research.NSF contributes to this effort through support of basic research in all areas of atmospheric, earth, ocean, mathematical, biological, and social sciences. Additionally, NSF supports other fundamental research related to the Environment including research on biodiversity and ecosystem function, natural hazards reduction, and environmental technologies.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
At this web site you will find information pertaining to the science of global warming; current and projected impacts of global warming; international and U.S. Government policies and programs; opportunities for individuals and corporations to help stop global warming (and in many cases, save money, too!); state and local actions that help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions; and, easy ways to obtain more information by fax, e-mail and electronic order form.
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Earth Sciences Directorat, Greenbelt MD
The GCDC mission is to develop and operate data systems, generate science products, and provide archival and distribution services for earth science data in support of the U.S. Global Change Program and the NASA Mission to Planet Earth. The ultimate product of the GCDC activities is access to data to support research, education and public policy.
United States Government
GCDIS is a collection of distributed information systems operated by government agencies involved in global change research. GCDIS provides global change data to scientists and researchers, policy makers, educators, industry, and the public at large. GCDIS includes multidisciplinary data from atmospheric science, ecology, oceanography, as well as economics and sociology. GCDIS is a cooperative activity of agencies participating in the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP).
United States Government
The US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) provides access to data and information on global change research, adaptation/mitigation strategies and technologies, and global change related educational resources on behalf the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and its participating Federal Agencies and Organizations. GCRIO is implemented by The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).
United States Government
Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a worldwide network of students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment.
GLOBE students make a core set of environmental observations at or near their schools and report their data via the Internet. Scientists use GLOBE data in their research and provide feedback to the students to enrich their science education. Each day, images created from the GLOBE student data sets are posted on the World Wide Web, allowing students and visitors to the GLOBE web site to visualize the student environmental observations.
University of California, Davis
The National Institute for Global Environmental Change (NIGEC) was established by the U.S. Congress in the Energy and Water Act of 1989. The institute is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the University of California under a cooperative agreement. NIGEC's National Office is hosted by the University of California, Davis.
The United States-Asia Enviornmental Partnership (US-AEP) is an interagency project designed and led by the United States Agency for International Development, launched as a presidential initiative in 1992. Our mission is to assist in addressing environmental degradation and sustainable development issues in the Aisa- Pacific region by mobilizing U.S. environmental experience, technology, and practice.
The site contains links to environmental sites on the Internet, as well as information on activities in Asia. It provides the users with a comprehensive guide to environmental issues in Asia and a starting place for further researches.
United States Government
The USGCRP was created as a Presidential Initiative in 1989 and formalized in 1990 by the Global Change Research Act of 1990. Since that time, global change research has remained a key science initiative. Continuing to improve scientific understanding of the Earth system is a priority of the National Science and Technology Council's Committee on Environment and Natural Resources.
United States Government
National and international concern is growing over the prospect of global environmental changes related to increasing human activities, including emissions of greenhouse gases. A primary goal of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) is to provide reliable predictions of future climate changes and their effects. The USGS Global Change Research Program contributes to the USGCRP by documenting the character of environments in the past and present, and by documenting the geological, hydrological, geochemical, and geophysical processes involved in environmental change.
University of Iowa
The University of Iowa's Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER) promotes interdisciplinary research efforts that focus on the multiple aspects of global environmental change, including the regional effects on natural ecosystems, environments, and resources, and on human health, culture and social systems. Center membership is composed of interested faculty members at any of Iowa's colleges and universities.
The Pennsylvania State University
The Center for Integrated Regional Assessment at The Pennsylvania State University was founded in 1996 to facilitate interdisciplinary research and education in the Human Dimensions of Global Change at the regional level of study. The center (CIRA) is an inter-college and inter-university community that operates under the auspices of the Earth System Science Center (ESSC) in the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Atmospheric Sciences
University Center, Michigan
CIESIN was established in 1989 as a non-profit, non-governmental organization to provide information that would help scientists, decision-makers, and the public better understand their changing world.
CIESIN specializes in global and regional network development, science data management, decision support, and training, education and technical consultation services.
EnviroLink is a non-profit organization...a grassroots online community that unites hundreds of organizations and volunteers around the world with millions of people in over 130 countries. All of us at Envirolink are dedicated to providing you with the most comprehensive, up-to-date environmental resources available.
University of Maryland, Center for Global Change
"Global Change" seeks to familiarize the public with the issues associated with climate change and ozone depletion. From July 1995 through 31 May 1996, the University of Maryland's Center for Global Change published "Global Change." But the Center shut down on 31 May 1996. Beginning in mid-June 1996, "Global Change" will operate temporarily without funding. In the longer term, if funds are not secured, we reluctantly will close down.
University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program
What exactly are greenhouse gases? How large is the human population right now? What is ozone and why should I care about it? To learn more about these subjects, or find answers to any other questions you have about sea level rise, global warming, biodiversity, ozone depletion, or other climate and global change topics, check out our links!
Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) Huntsville, Alabama
Located at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) in Huntsville, Alabama, IGCRE is an Institution jointly operated by The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and is funded through (NASA)/Marshall Space Flight Center to collaborate with the Earth System Science Division (ESSD) to focus on advancing the understanding of the role of water and energy in the dynamics of global change. In addition, the Institute is integrating research with the educational needs of Earth system and global change science, including those at the pre-college level, to convey the importance and exciting challenges of global change science. A goal of the Institute is to serve research efforts of university, private-sector and government -agency scientists who seek to develop long-term collaborative efforts in global change science.
San Francisco, California
The Institute for Global Communications serves to expand and inspire movements for environmental sustainability, human and workers' rights, nonviolent conflict resolution, social and economic justice, and women's equality by providing and developing accessible computer networking tools. IGC is the U.S. member and a founding member of the Association for Progressive Communications.
University of Tennessee
NCEDR provides decision makers, especially state, regional, and local government officials, with the information, techniques, and processes needed to solve environmental problems. In doing so, it creates a meeting place for both researchers and practitioners in the improvement of environmental decision-making.
Univerisity of Colorado
The Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences is an interdisciplinary program that provides an educational and research environment to examine the dynamical, physical and chemical structures of the atmosphere and the ocean and the manner in which they interact. A major theme is the establishment of a physical basis for understanding, observing, and modelling climate and global change.
Virginia Sea Grant/ Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Web links to dozens of Global Change teaching resources.
Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.
Weathervane is an online forum designed to provide the news media, legislators, opinion leaders, and the interested public with analysis and commentary on U.S. and global policy initiatives related to climate change. It is published the first and third Monday of every month by Resources for the Future (RFF) with an eye toward the upcoming Conference of Parties meeting in Kyoto, Japan this December where policymakers are expected to decide on goals and actions under the Framework Convention on Climate Change.