Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change


The World Conservation Union

Social Anthropology
Wits University
Private Bag 3
Wits 2050,
South Africa

The initiative is a collaborative venture between Carnegie Mellon University Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change (HDGC), the School for the Environment (WiSE) of The University of the Witwatersrand and the IUCN - The World Conservation Union. Close relations and partnerships exist with a number of other southern African, European and North American universities and non-governmental agencies. The first research phase (commencing 2003) has the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP) and the wider Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTCA) as a pilot case study. A TBPA research unit will be based at Wits University with a field office at Wits Rural Facility (WRF), Limpopo Province.

TBPA Mailing List

Research Objectives
Current GLTP Research
Seminar Series
Key References

Daniel Marnewick,

Tourism Development and Transboundary
Protected Areas Description


The Initiative will conduct integrated assessments of TPBA's in southern Africa as coupled human-environment systems that operate across scales and boundaries. It's objective will be to assess the nature of the social and natural transformations brought about by TBPA's. It will also aim at providing an independent research service and to make critical and constructive contributions to the policy decision-making process. It will focus on environmental as well as social sustainability of TBPA's.

The Initiative will conduct research on the following themes:

  • The eco-regional planning framework and linkages between planning processed across scales and boundaries;
  • Historical vulnerabilities and adaptation of local people to climate variability, resource limitations and political ecologies;
  • The social and economic framework of the GLTCA, with an emphasis on land ownership and land reform;
  • Tourism development and community-based tourism initiatives launched in the GLTP area over the last decade, with special emphasis of community-public- private partnerships;
  • The decision-making process and governance.


As a part of the TBPA outreach we have scheduled several speakers to present seminars about their work related to the initiative. In order to participate and listen to these seminars, please contact Barbara Bugosh for further detail.


Wednesday, August 10, 2005 - 9:30 AM (EST), UK 2:30 PM, WEUR & SAST 3:30 PM


Working paper title: "Whims of the Socio-Political Winds of Time? Contestations in Biodiversity Conservation and Protected Areas Management

The authors are doctoral candidates at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, respectively. They presented an original version of the paper at the IUCN-TPARI Indaba (workshop/conference) held in Skukuza, the Kruger National Park, in May 2005. It was entitled  "Indaba on Social Research and Protected Areas: Towards equitable best practice". The Indaba dealt with three main themes, namely: "Engaging community", "Engaging conservation", and "Emergent paradigms in the region and internationally". A post-indaba process currently aims at developing the main workshop presentations further, in part by way of teleseminar presentations.

Abstract: In this seminar, we will try to place the general trends in the history of the conservation-development nexus in Africa in an international political power perspective. Grounded in International Relations theory, the seminar identifies in broad strokes how several political and social histories and events have shaped and are shaping the political 'manoeuvrability' of contestations in the linkage between conservation and development. The underlying argument that the seminar tries to prove is that the (institutionalised) issues of conservation and development are subservient to other interests in the world today, and only by accepting and acknowledging this fact and taking it as the starting point for action can the 'room for manoeuvrability' for these important issues be broadened.


Thursday, October 14, 2004 - 9:30 AM (EST), UK 2:30 PM, WEUR & SAST 3:30 PM


"Win-win partnerships? Local people and the private sector in Ecotourism"
The natural attractions of the southern African region are today widely regarded as key drivers for economic empowerment through the ecotourism industry. However, in impoverished rural settings local people characteristically capture disproportionately little benefits from tourism.
As southern African countries experiment with the devolution of resource rights, joint ventures between newly endowed local people and commercial business partners have proliferated. These have generated mixed results and academics and development agencies remain sceptical of the true value of these partnerships to local communities. The paper examines and draws on the southern African experience of the last decade, referring to a wide range of examples in South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Namibia, to distil a set of 'best practices guidelines' regarding the structuring of commercial partnerships between resource-owning indigenous communities and private sector. Such guidelines are particularly important in the context of large-scale ecoregional planning initiatives, such as Transboundary Protected Areas.

Will Wolmer Comments
Julian Sturgeon Comments
Ann Spenceley Comments


Thursday, September 30, 2004 - 9:30 AM (EST), UK 2:30 PM, WEUR & SAST 3:30 PM

REBECCA WITTER, University of Georgia, Atlanta, Department of Environmental Anthropology: Agroforestry, Trees and the Cultural Landscape of the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique PPT File

TEMBA LINDEN, University of the Witwatersrand, Politics Department: 'Land and Conflict in the Madimbo Corridor'. PPT File

The Transboundary Protected Areas Research Initiative (TPARI), a programme running under the auspices of the IUCN South Africa and the Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change (CMU), is presenting a student teleseminar in partnership with the Universities of Wits (South Africa) and Georgia (USA). The students will be presenting on their conservation related research via telephonic seminar.


Wednesday, May 12, 2004 at US 9:30 AM (EST), UK 2:30 PM, WEUR & SAST 3:30 PM

Bates College Student Research, Advisor - Peter J. Rogers

The following Bates College (Lewistown, Maine) Program in Environmental Studies students will be presenting:
Abigail Harris - Border Life: The Clash between Wildlife Conservation and Rural Poverty
Kathryn Mannle - Nurturing Seeds of Association: Democracy and Conservation through Civil Society at Masoala National Park, Madagascar
Elizabeth Morrill - Carrying the Burden: Understanding the Influences on Women's Fuel-wood Collection Practices in Northeastern Tanzania


Thursday, March 18, 2004 - US 9:30 AM (EST), UK 2:30 PM, WEUR 3:30 PM, SAST 4:30 PM

Hennie Lotter
Professor in Philosophy
Rand University

"Should Elephants be culled?"

Powerpoint Presentation

Professor Hennie Lotter commenced work on the ethics of elephant culling little more than a year ago. He has no association with any conservation NGOs/Non-profits and will present an independent opinion on the ethics of elephant culling.

Brian Child's Comments; Southern African Sustainable Use Specialist Group

Saleim Fakir's Summary; IUCN-SA

Michelle Pickover's Comments; from Xwe

Attendance List


Wednesday, October 1, 2003 - 10:30 AM (EST) - 4:30 PM (SAST)

Dr. David Hughes, Assistant Professor Human Ecology/Social Sciences Rutgers University

GOING TRANSBOUNDARY: SCALE MAKING AND EXCLUSION IN SOUTHERN-AFRICAN CONSERVATION This paper explores tensions and conflicts around land use in the GLCA, with a Focus on the land invasions/reform in Zimbabwe and threats to local livelihoods in Mozambique. Dr Hughes has conducted substantial research in both countries.

Transfrontier Cons Area PRA Report Map Resident Map

 Seminar Critique by Brian Jones

===================================================================== Wednesday, October 29, 2003- 10:30 (EST) - 4:30 PM (SAST)

Dr. David Grossman Ecologist/Consultant David Grossman & Associates

OVERVIEW OF THE NATURAL AND HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF THE GLCA: CURRENT STATUS AND KEY ISSUES. Dr. Grossman has been directly involved in the development of management plans for the Limpopo, Banhine and Zinave National Parks in Mozambique, and the Makuleke Region of the Kruger National Park, in South Africa. All these areas form part of the envisaged Greater Limpopo Conservation Area. His paper provides an experienced practitioner’s perspective on the planning and implementation of this transfrontier park.

 Presentation Notes

 Attendance List


Tuesday, April 22, 2003 - 2:00 PM, EST

Robert Thornton, Professor, CV
Department of  Anthropology
University of Witwatersrand

PowerPoint Slides:
Traditional Healers, Bio-medical Pracitice and Sexuality: Prospects and Barriers to Co-operation

This seminar presents, The Project:  Traditional healers' and medical doctors' responses
to HIV/AIDS and potential for co-operation.


Wednesday, April 23, 2003 - 12:00 Noon, EST

Robert Thornton, Professor,  CV
Department of Anthropology
University of Witwatersrand

Environment and Land in Bushbuckridge, South Africa

PowerPoint Slides:
Complexity, Networks and Environment in the South African Lowveld

The presentation will explain the Bushbuckridge environment and the
potentials for conflict and the politics of land claims and the environment.
Friday, April 25, 2003 - 12:00 Noon, EST

Stuart Marks, Independent Scholar and Consultant

Community-Based Wildlife Management in Southern Africa
Two locally constructed narratives from Zambia describe the actors and 
activities centered around two wildlife events. These stories-of a poached 
elephant and of a legally sanctioned harvest of hippos- suggest some of 
the local social/political and technical contingencies inherent in CBWM. 
The local details of these processes are rarely visible to outsiders, yet 
they are significant crafting CBWM initiatives to local circumstances. 
The paper advocates the necessity for examining many of the 
assumptions and universalistic claims for CBWM together with the 
need to understand social differences, diverse institutions, and 
environmental processes.

A Cull of Hippos
On Poaching and Elephant
Thursday, May 22, 2003 - 12:00 Noon EST  -  4:00 PM SAST

Peter Rogers, Lecturer
Environmental Studies
Bates College

Global Governance/Governmentality, Wildlife Conservation, 
and Protected Area Management: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Southern Africa
This paper provides a snapshot of a research project's methodology while it is still in the process of being created and refined. The paper examines the theoretical concerns of the project, political ecology and governmentality, and argues for the real world importance of the topics of wildlife conservation and protected area management in sub-Saharan Africa. It provides the project's governmentality-influence research questions which focus on the "how" of resource use and management. The comparative case study methodology of the project is explained, and the Serengeti-Mara area of Eastern Africa and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park of Southern Africa are briefly described. These two cases are conceptualized as protected area complexes composed of both direct and indirect elements/units of observation. Operationalization of the project's research questions and theoretical issues is one of the most important items explored in this paper. The role of databases and computer-assisted qualitative analysis is next considered. The paper concludes by discussing debates of the theoretical position in the contemporary political ecology literature and arguing for a recognition of the key role of ecological factors in political ecology.


SPRING, 2005

CMU Centre for Integrated Study of Human Dimensions of Global Change- Carnegie Mellon University
Savana Consortium - University of the Witwatersrand
Eduardo Mondlane University
University of the North
University of West Virgina
The ALAM Partnership: ICRAF, CGIAR, University of Georgia, Yale University, Danida, USAID
IUCN South Africa

For further information contact Conrad Steenkamp at

Other Relevant Conferences: The conferences listed below are of interest to the TBPA Research
Initiative. If any TBPA-list members intend to participate in these conferences, we would like to know whether they would be interested in acting as informal 'rapporteurs' for us. i.e. to give the list feedback about the conference proceedings and to comment on issues of relevance to our intiative. Volunteers are requested to contact Dr Conrad Steenkamp at

PEOPLE IN PARKS: Beyond the Debate, Achieving Conservation in Human-Inhabited Protected Areas
Spring 2004 Conference: April 2 - 3, International Society of Tropical Foresters Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Call for Papers
The debate over people in parks has been a fiery one, yet one thing has become clear: Human Inhabited Protected Areas (HIPAs) are a reality of the conservation landscape. Protected area managers and policy-makers acknowledge that areas of high conservation value are already a home and subsistence base for local communities, and are attempting to incorporate these communities in conservation planning. The challenge that remains is how to achieve conservation in HIPAs. Although formally HIPAs are a relatively new phenomenon, some preliminary conclusions about what works and what does not can now be drawn. Major efforts to integrate communities within protected areas have been underway for the last decade, providing time for reflection and analysis of empirical data. Other protected areas that incorporate local community participation may also prove highly instructive for identifying the effective elements to conservation in HIPAs. The Yale Chapter of the International Society of Tropical Foresters will convene all sides of the debate to identify constructive lessons in the effort to create Human-Inhabited Protected Areas of lasting conservation value. Social and natural scientists, resource managers, policy-makers, community leaders and other interested parties will come together to share their experiences dealing with this challenge. We hope the conference will stimulate debate on a range of topics, including but not limited to such questions as: . What policy elements make for effective conservation in HIPAs? . How and when do local people conserve nature? Is there a formula for effective local organization? Under what conditions and institutional frameworks? . How do differing values amongst stakeholders affect reserve viability? How can conflicts between state and communities in HIPAs be transformed? . How can humans and wildlife co-exist in protected areas? Are maximum sustainable yields for forest products and wildlife useful, viable instruments for community-based conservation? . How do HIPAs play into regional conservation strategies and sustainable development programs? . Can communities achieve meaningful quality of life improvements in a conservation-driven regulatory context? How should property rights be allocated between the state and communities, and among communities in HIPAs? How do these allocations affect reserve viability? . Are there some conservation objectives that cannot be achieved through HIPAs? . What constitutes success and how is it measured? We encourage the submission of abstracts based upon primary research, or personal or institutional experience. Persons selected will present full papers at the conference, and typically have the opportunity to publish their work in a peer reviewed journal as part of the proceedings. Although the focus of the conference will be on the tropics, we welcome relevant experiences from around the world. Abstracts should be a maximum of 500 words. All correspondence will be addressed to the principal author. In your response, please include the following:
Name(s) of the author(s)
Title and abstract of the paper to be presented
Institution(s) or organization(s) of author(s)' affiliation(s)
Address, telephone, fax and e-mail of the principal author
Please send abstracts to the following address or email address by 23 December 2003:
Yale ISTF Conference
c/o Tropical Resource Institute
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies
210 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511
Web site:


The objective of this section is to assist GLTP researchers to better contextualise their work and to promote synergies between researchers from different institutions. Participants contribute to and have access to our GLTP literature list. Much of this literature is available at our Wits University office. Please contact Daniel Marnewick for more information.

Project Principles for Visiting Researchers

Feedback from Lenka Tucek

Senior researchers

Peter Rogers
Assistant Professor, Environmental Studies, Program in Environmental Studies, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, United States of America
Issue: Governance in GLTP

Mail to:

Conrad Steenkamp
TBPA-RI coordinator, Wits University and Carnegie Mellon University.
Issue: Assessment of community-based projects in the GLTP region.
Mail to:

Robert Thornton
Local head of TBPA-RI and senior Lecturer, Department of Social Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand.
Issue: Local governance and social networks.
Papers on website further below.
Mail to:

PhD candidates:

Marloes van Amerom
Geography: University of Durham, United Kingdom
Working title: Regional tensions between political and environmental objectives in transboundary conservation.
Mail to:

Jenni Kauppila
Department of Regional Studies and Environmental Policy
University of Tampere, Finland
Working title: From fences to co-operation: credibility and trust-building in actor-networks. The case of the Kruger National Park in South Africa
Mail to:

Roelie Kloppers
University of Pretoria
MA (Anthropology), MA (History)
Anthropologist/ Social Ecologist/ Historian
Working title: Border Crossings: War, Peace and theTransformation of the Mozambique/ South Africa Borderland.
Mail to:

Themba Linden
Political Science: University of South Africa
Working title: Natural Resources and Conflict: Environmental and Resource Claims in the Madimbo Corridor Dispute, 1996 - 2002
Mail to:

Christine Mitchell
Doctoral Candidate Clark Graduate School of Geography
Issue: Livelihood Vulnerability, Hazards and TBNRMs
Working title: Expanding Conservation Areas and Indigenous Livelihood Options in the Limpopo Province, South Africa
Mail to:

Rebecca Witter
Social Anthropology: University of Georgia, United States of America.
Working title: Exploratory ethnographic research on agroforestry in the
Limpopo National Park, Mozambique
Mail to:

MA candidates:

Sandra Slater-Jones
Sociology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Working title: Comparative study GLTP and North American transboundary PA.
Project description: forthcoming
Mail to:

Epstein Njokweni
Social Anthropology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Working title: The GLTP and rural livelihoods in the Gaza province.
Project description forthcoming
Mail to:

Lenka Tucek
MA in Anthropology at the Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz Germany
Research theme: Cultural tourism in South Africa with a focus on the Limpopo Province
Mail to:

Cultural tourism in Limpopo Province - Nyani Tribal Village
Kulturtouismus in der Limpopo Provinz - Nyani Tribal Village

B.A. Honours candidates:

Stuart Miller
Sociology: University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
Case study: Bazaruto Archipelago National Park, the Mungonzices Community Game Guard Programme (coastal regions).
Communities and Conservation
Mail to:

Chris Westcott
Environmental Studies, Program in Environmental Studies, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine, United States of America

Other TBPAs or general TBPA research

PhD candidates:

Bram Büscher
Political Anthropology/Development Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Working title: Regionalising the link between management of wildlife and biodiversity and poverty reduction in the southern African Development Community
(Focus on the Kgalakgadi Transfrontier Park).

Mail to:

Randy J. Tanner
The University of Montana
Law: Transfrontier Conservation Areas of Southern Africa and the Role of Local Communities in the Context of International Law
Mail to:

MPhil Community and Development
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology
University of Stellenbosch
Community participation and sustainable development in the |Ai-|Ais Richtersveld Transfrontier Conservation Park - (Kozette Myburgh, December 2003)


Commercial poaching pressures Zimbabwe's rhinos
25 Aug 2003, WWF Press Release

Harare, Zimbabwe - WWF, in collaboration with the Zimbabwean Parks and Wildlife Management Authority and other conservation agencies, is assisting in emergency responses to increasing rhino poaching in Zimbabwe. Since March 2002, at least 16 black rhinos (Diceros bicornis) and several elephants have been slaughtered in the Matusadona and Hwange National Parks in northern and western Zimbabwe. The Parks and Wildlife Management Authority has responded through enhanced patrol efforts, despite crippling shortages of manpower, fuel, and equipment. Four poachers have been killed in recent firefights, and several have been arrested. WWF-funded operations enabled the relocation of 22 black rhinos from areas of high snaring risk to safer areas during 2002. Future operations are likely to be approved by the Parks and Wildlife Management Authority. Other supporting NGOs, in particular the Marwell Zimbabwe Trust, the Zambezi Society, and the SAVE Foundation of Australia, have helped to deal with the new crisis of commercial rhino poaching in national parks. Over the past three years, at least 15 black rhinos have died in these ranching areas as a consequence of indiscriminate snaring, adding to the ongoing problems of rhino snaring by subsistence poachers in conservancies. Further problems for Zimbabwe's rhinos arose in June when South African 'sport' hunters were involved in the illegal slaughter of a black rhino in southern Zimbabwe. "Prompt action is required by the South African and Zimbabwean authorities to deal with this recent case and to clamp down on the cross-border hunting forays by readily identifiable hunting parties," said Dr.Harrison Kojwang, Regional Representative for WWF in Southern Africa. WWF's rhino specialist, Raoul du Toit, adds "Whereas impoverished Zimbabweans may claim that they are driven to poaching in order to feed themselves, relatively wealthy sport hunters from South Africa have no such excuse - their unethical behaviour is driven by financial interests and by thrill-seeking." During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Zimbabwe's black rhino population fell from about 2,000 to 370, due to commercial poaching perpetrated mainly by gangs from across the northern border. Effective conservation measures then rebuilt the population to about 500. Recently, Zimbabwe's deteriorating economy and land disputes have stimulated poaching for bushmeat, and rhinos are being caught in wire snares. Unemployment and inflating costs of living are driving more and more Zimbabweans into informal occupations, including destructive activities such as uncontrolled gold panning and poaching. The consequent harvesting of wildlife and other natural resources is proving difficult for state conservation agencies to regulate. While it is impossible to quantify the overall loss of wildlife, estimates of 50 to 80 per cent of wildlife being lost from some former commercial farms are widely reported. "The resolution of internal poaching by rural communities is a long-term issue requiring the evolution of equitable and durable land reform arrangements within various sectors of Zimbabwe's complicated wildlife industry," warned Dr Kojwang. "WWF stands ready to assist with technical support in developing these arrangements, which will take a great deal of effort and a willingness by all stakeholders to negotiate workable and sensible solutions on an area-by-area basis."

Editor's note:
Investigations into the shooting of a young female rhino in a conservancy in southern Zimbabwe in June 2003 led to the identification of South African participants in this incident. Some South African
hunters are taking advantage of the unsettled situation in Zimbabwe's rural areas to run illegal safari hunting operations. Members of this network pay small 'trophy fees' to the occupiers of wildlife properties. They then shoot whatever animals they can (including elephants) for meat, hides and trophies, which they market illegally.

For further information:
WWF Southern Africa Regional Programme Office
Tel.: +263 4 252533

Three Poachers Killed, One Arrested

Tawanda Kanhema
The Herald (Harare)

July 14, 2003--THE poaching war in Gwaai Conservancy has seen at least four rhinos and 20 painted hunting dogs killed in the past two months, with game scouts fighting back and killing three poachers and arresting one who surrendered. The four poachers are suspected to be Zambians. Painted Dog Conservation Trust project manager Mr Peter Blinston said there has been an alarming escalation in the level of poaching recently, with two study packs of painted dogs, comprising about 20 dogs, having been wiped out in the past week. "In the past 18 months, we have lost at least 31 dogs in the Gwaai Conservancy area, which ought to have a dog population of above 60. The poaching is occurring at a very worrying scale," he said. Painted hunting dogs or wild dogs are one of Africa's most endangered species with a mere 3,000 remaining out of 500,000 in 1900. Hunters and poachers kill the dog, a prolific hunter, mainly for its heart and liver, which they believe will enhance their hunting skills. "We are at such a critical point that in six months there will be nothing," zoologist Mr Gregory Rasmussen, who has been working on the conservation project since 1989, said. "There is poaching like I have never seen in 13 years. If it continues like this there will be nothing in the buffer zone." Police in Gwaai found one of the protective collars put on the dogs at a farm worker's house after an anti-poaching team had noticed inconsistencies in the dogs' movements and traced radio signals from one of the missing dogs' collars. Animals that survive poachers' snares are often found with deep cuts on their necks usually inflicted by the wires used to make the snares. In some cases elephants have been found with severed trunks. "If the poaching doesn't stop then the value of national parks and subsequently tourism will go down," Mr Rasmussen said. He noted that poaching has the capability to completely undermine the model A2 resettlement scheme. "The A2 scheme had the objective to make people gain value from the resources but poachers are destroying the wealth," he said. Reports from other parts of the country also indicate that many other species have been seriously affected in the past 18 months, including elephants, giraffe and the endangered black rhinos.

Four rhinos are reported to have been killed in the Sinamatella area in the Hwange National Park in the past two months, bringing the number of black rhinos killed since September last year to 11. "It is a very worrying situation," said the head of the anti-poaching team, Mr Sikhosana Sibanda. "If things continue in this way we will be out of the job in three months . . . there will be no anti-poaching to do." In 2002 alone, poachers killed about 595 impala, 340 kudu, seven giraffes, six elephants and one black rhino. According to estimates by the Zimbabwe Wildlife Producers Association,
half of the country's wildlife has been killed in the past two years.

Mr Blinston blamed the escalation in the level of poaching on the recent drought and high levels of unemployment. "Added to that is the problem of absentee landlords," he said. "Most of the surrounding farms are manned by inexperienced staff who often resort to game as a source of food."

Copyright © 2003 The Herald. All rights reserved. Distributed by
AllAfrica Global Media (


This article includes several statistics on the scale of poaching in Zimbabwe.

Mugabe's man claims top reserve for 'hunting'
September 01 2003
Gustav Thiel, The Mercury

Amid weekend reports that Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe is building a R60-million retirement mansion, it has emerged that one of his closest allies has claimed the world-renowned Hwange Wildlife Estate to be used for hunting purposes. The estate is home to the "presidential herd" of about 500 elephants, which were given special presidential protection in a decree issued by Mugabe
in 1991.
Johnny Rodrigues, chairperson of the Zimbabwean Conservation Task Force, said on Sunday that the governor of Matabeleland, Obert Mpofu, "has just simply taken the Hwange estate". "The land will now be a free-for-all for poachers and for him (Mpofu) to allow hunters to kill the animals," he said. Rodrigues said he "would not be surprised if he (Mpofu) next moves to claim land in the Hwange National Park for his own purposes" because there were no fences separating the estate from the park. Hwange National Park is Zimbabwe's biggest game reserve at 14 650km2. Rodrigues added that people like Mpofu "are putting a death sentence on the future heritage of the country and the benefits that wildlife conservation would have had for the people of the country". It has been estimated that more than $400-million (about R2,9-billion) has been lost in Zimbabwe's southern region because of rampant poaching.

Mpofu should understand the 'folly of allowing hunting at Hwange' Bambo Kadzombe, chairperson of the Zimbabwe Wildlife Advisory Council, said: "Three thousand animals have been poached so far on commercial game farms and Zimbabwe's conservancies, mainly at Save Valley, Mahenye, Bubiyana
conservancy, Bubye Valley and Chiredzi River conservancy."
In 2002, more than 100 poachers had been arrested and Kadzombe said that if the poaching continued species could become extinct. Rodrigues said it was with that in mind that Mpofu should understand the "folly of allowing hunting at Hwange". He said over the past five years more than 300 of the remaining black rhino in Zimbabwe had been killed. A wildlife researcher based in Zimbabwe said the taking of the land by Mpofu
could jeopardise the inclusion of Zimbabwe's Gonarezhou Park in the Limpopo Transfrontier Park, combining three national parks in Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.


Fire devastates game park in Mozambique

September 10, 2003 - Reuters MAPUTO, Mozambique - A fire sparked by hunters looking for rats to eat is devastating a Mozambique game park that shook off its battlefield past to become a haven for rare wildlife, officials said Tuesday. The fire, which raged for a third day Tuesday, has gutted the northern half of the 1,456-square-mile Gorongosa National Park, driving elephants, buffalo, warthogs, and other animals and birds into over populated areas. Park wardens fear that in their search for shelter, the animals could jump out of the fire and into the frying pans of poor villagers, who may try to snare them as a protein-rich supplement to their meager diet. Gorongosa is also home to lions, leopards, zebras, and hippos as well as about 500 species of birds, such as the green-headed oriole and the mustached warbler. Founded in 1921, the park was one of the main battlefields in Mozambique's 16-year civil war, which ended in 1992. Having changed hands between government troops and rebels several times during the war, it became a haven for poachers before its revival, with help from the European Union and international lenders such as the African Development Bank. Firefighters have been unable to get the fire under control, said park administrator Roberto Zolho, but he added that his team was doing everything possible to contain the inferno. He said the fires were apparently started by poor villagers hunting rats to eat. Fires can be used to drive rats into traps.


Breaking down borders in Africa

Tamar Kahn
22 September 2003
Source: SciDev.Net


llegal hunts wiping out Zimbabwe's wildlife
By Melanie Gosling, November 5, 2003

Zimbabwe wildlife is being slaughtered by poachers, biltong hunters and illegal safari operators who are taking advantage of the country's unsettled situation to fill their pockets. South Africans are believed to be among the illegal operators, as are Zimbabwe government officials. Desperate environmentalists, trying to keep tabs on the illegal hunting, believe up to 80% of the wild animals on Zimbabwe's wildlife conservancies and about 60% in Zimbabwe's national parks have been wiped out. The World Wide Fund for Nature's (WWF) Southern African regional office in Harare says illegal safari operators from South Africa pay small "trophy fees" to people who are occupying wildlife properties, which enables them to shoot any animals - including elephants - for meat, hides and trophies, all of which are exported illegally. WWF said in a statement recently that 16 endangered black rhino and several elephants had been slaughtered in Matusadona and Hwange National Parks. They said Zimbabwe's deteriorating economy and land disputes had stimulated poaching for "bushmeat", and rhinos were being caught in bushmeat snares. WWF's rhino specialist, Raoul du Toit, said while impoverished Zimbabweans may claim to be driven to poaching to feed themselves, unethical sport hunters were driven by money and thrill-seeking. Johnny Rodrigues, chairman of the Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force, said three elephants had been shot in Hwange Estate last week. "Last week 40 protected sable were exported. It is so easy to forge signatures on export permits," Rodrigues said yesterday. Rodrigues has lists of registration numbers of people seen hunting illegally in Zimbabwe, many of whom come from Limpopo province. Zimbabwe National Parks staff have been seen in the company of South African hunters. Paul Bristow, who has a cattle and game farm near Beit Bridge, said two South Africans had moved onto his property two weeks ago to hunt for biltong and skins. They claimed they had been given permission by war veterans. The Hunting Report, a newsletter for hunters published in the United States, has warned American hunters that safaris are being conducted illegally in Zimbabwe. "The illegal hunts are being conducted on lands that have been occupied by so-called war veterans who don't own these lands or possess the rights to wildlife on them. "The South African professional hunters are simply capitalising on the lawlessness and disorder in Zimbabwe," the newsletter said. Gary Davies, chief executive director of the Professional Hunters' Association of SA, said yesterday he had heard reports of illegal hunting, which the association condemned. "If they are our members we will take action, but so far we've only heard accusations and no one has come up with anything to substantiate the claims," Davies said. The Cape Times was unable to get comment from Zimbabwe National Parks or the country's department of environment and tourism. Tony Frost of WWF-South Africa said yesterday: "We decry in the strongest terms any form of illegal or unethical hunting. It is a tragedy." - Environment Writer


Zimbabwe: State to Curb Poaching By New Farmers
Zimbabwe Standard (Harare), November 23, 2003
John Makura

CASES of poaching will continue unabated if the government does not urgently control the activities of the so-called new farmers and recruit more game guards, The Standard has learnt. Presenting a paper on the impact of the land reform on wildlife at a conference of the Zimbabwe Indigenous Safari Operators Association (ZISOA), Vitalis Chadenga, a director with the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, recently said during the fast track phase of the land reform programme, the emphasis was land first and all else later. "Little or no attention was paid to the security of wildlife outside the (national) parks estate. This has the effect of foreclosing wildlife production as a legitimate land use option particularly for those settlers in areas where agricultural potential is limited by erratic rainfall and poor soils," said Chadenga. "The problem of poaching was particularly acute during the first 18 months of the programme when even our flagship species like the rhino became incidental victims of bush meat snaring," added Chadenga, in a speech read on his behalf. The one-day conference was also told that the department of national parks was severely understaffed with 635 game guards out of an approved establishment of 966. Of the 635 guards, many were now too old to conduct patrols while several others are manning tourist offices and entrance gates into the parks. A senior official in the department, L Mungwashu said anti-poaching efforts were being hampered by the limited distribution of parks' offices in the country and an ageing vehicle fleet. He said in many cases, the department failed to respond in time to reports of poaching due to its ageing vehicles. He also pointed out that there was very little reward for whistle blowers hence people usually did not report poaching cases. Poaching activities are on the rise since the government embarked on the resettlement of landless blacks on former white commercial properties, including game farms. Chadenga, in his statement, said the settlement of people on game ranches had also resulted in the loss of the geographical range and natural habitats following indiscriminate burning and cutting down of trees. "This has led to the erosion of confidence in the integrity of the country's wildlife management authority as well as undermining our drive to promote wildlife farming as a legitimate land use option," he said. He said the first year of the controversial resettlement programme had witnessed about 90 percent decline in tourist arrivals at game ranches and the extensive poaching that followed had destroyed the resource base beyond redemption in some areas. "The destruction of game proof veterinary fences, absence of rehabilitation of game and consequent increase in buffalo/cattle contact, created conditions conducive to the outbreak of foot and mouth disease. The subsequent outbreak of foot and mouth and the extent of its spread can be traced back to increased cattle/buffalo contact," he added. Until 2000, wildlife farming was a major component of agriculture in Zimbabwe. Many white farmers were exploiting the multiple uses of wildlife particularly hunting and eco-tourism. Although protected areas hold more buffalo and elephant populations, commercial farms contributed significantly to the general wildlife estate in Zimbabwe, said the natural resources' experts.


Dr. Conrad Steenkamp, ( Program Director, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Integrated Study of the Human Dimensions of Global Change

Daniel Marnewick, ( Administrative Officer, Transboundary Protected Areas Research Initiative

Joana Lucas, ( Office Manager, Wits Rural Facility Office, Limpopo Province


 For information or copies of the following publications, please contact Daniel Marnewick,

Fakir, S. June, 2000. Transfrontier Conservations areas: A new dawn for eco-tourism, or a new form of conservation expansionism. IUCN - Policy Think Tank Series No. 3.

Fakir, S. July, 2002. The Murky political waters of TBNRM: A response to Gus Le Breton. IUCN-SA.

Fakir, S. June, 2003. From Sweet Talk to Delivery: Community participation in Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) zInwent-IUCN Workshop, Nelspurit, South Africa

Fakir, S. August, 2003. Transfrontier parks restore lost spiritual connection Communities divided arbitrarily from each other in the past will be among the beneficiaries of new approach. Business Day, 1st Edition

Hughes, D., Going Transboundary: Scale Making and Exclusion in Southern-African Conservation

Jones, B.T.B. & Chonguica, E. 2001. Review and Analysis of Specific Transboundary Natural Resource Management Initiatives in the Southern African Region. Paper No. 2. IUCN-ROSA Series on Transboundary Natural Resource Management.

Katerere, Y., Hill, R., & Moyo, S. 2001. A Critique of Transboundary Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Paper No. 1. IUCN-ROSA Series on Transboundary Natural Resource Managment.

Mayoral-Phillips, A.J.A. (Undated) Transboundary Areas in Southern Africa: Meeting the Needs of Conservation or Development?

Russell, D. & Harshbarger, C., 2001, Beyond rapid and pseudo-participatory: Smart social research for conservation practitioners, Prepared for the 100th meeting of the American Anthropological Association

Steenkamp, C. & Urh, J. 2000. The Makuleke Land Claim: Power relations and CBNRM in a South African case study IIED Evaluating Eden Programme, Occasional Paper No. 18. IIED: London.

Turner, Robin L., "Communities, conservation, and tourism-based development: Can community-based nature tourism live up to its promise?" (April 26, 2004). Center for African Studies. Breslauer Symposium on Natural Resource Issues in Africa. Paper turner2004a.

Van Der Linde, H., Oglethorpe, J., Sandwith, T., Snelson, D., Tessema, Y., Tiega, A., and Price, T., 2001. Beyond Boundaries: Transboundary Natural Resource Management in Sub-Saharan Africa. Biodiversity Support Program. Publication Number 127.

Wolmer, W. 2003. Transboundary conservation: The politics of ecological integrity in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park.

Zbicz, D. 1999. Transfrontier Ecosystems and Internationally Adjoining Protected Areas (Global List of Adjoining Protected Areas).

Land Use Planning of Coutada 16 Part of the Gaza-Kruger-Gonarezhou Transfrontier Park


Peace Parks Foundation

African Wildlife Foundation

Conservation International

South African Department of Environmental
Affairs and Tourism

South African National Parks

Offical Great Limpopo Website

United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Center

Refugee Research Programme

  Global Transboundary Protected Areas Network